The answer is yes. Say your original pick was envelope A. Originally, you had a 1/3 chance that envelope A contained the offer letter. There was a 2/3 chance that the offer letter was either in envelope B or C. If you stick with envelope A, you still have the same 1/3 chance. Now, the interviewer eliminated one of the envelopes (say, envelope B), which contained a rejection letter. So, by switching to envelope C, you now have a 2/3 chance of getting the offer and you’ve doubled your chances.
Note that you will often get this same question but referring to playing cards (as in 3-Card Monte) or doors (as in Monte Hall/Let’s Make a Deal) instead of envelopes.